CARACTERISTICI ALE IMAGINII CORPULUI ÎNTR-O EPOCĂ A (IM)PERFECȚIUNII

Alexandra BĂRBULESCU, PhD. Candidate

Doctoral School of Sociology, University of Bucharest

ABSTRACT: The present article has the purpose to identify the importance of the body image and its representation in the public space. In the first part of the article,  an evolution of the body image and its significance from the past to present is presented. It contains a brief analysis of the various practices and body transformations which differ from one society to another, from one time to another, having both cultural and social connotations. In the second part, the article presents the implications of the mass media in the formation and the development of new corporal model, which is considered ideal within a society, and the way in which individuals, especially young people, internalize these models. Also, it tries to identify the role that physical appearance plays in developing and creating social relations, especially in choosing a partner of the opposite sex. We all are human beings, different both mentally and physically: we think differently, we choose differently, we eat, smile and live differently. The manner we perceive ourselves and we represent our own body will positively or negatively influence our relations with others. Body image is often the tool of penetration of the individual in the social environment and of building relations of friendship, power, subordination or even, why not, manipulation.

 

KEYWORDS: body image, corporal practices, social relationships, mass-media, ideal body.

MOTIVE ȘI RESPONSABILI AI MISTIFICĂRII SISTEMULUI EDUCAȚIONAL DIN ROMÂNIA

Rodica – Cristina LISEANU, PhD. Candidate

Doctoral School of Sociology, University of Bucharest

ABSTRACT: This article develops a reflection on Romania’s current educational system, emphasizing the gap between the statistics regarding the phenomena of absenteeism, of school dropout and the dysfunctional reality. Quantitative research at a national level is superficial, because the micro-social space (school, town/city, county) is usually ignored. If the real situation differs from the one presented in official records, then the efficiency of applied public policies is deceiving, even false.  The discrepancies between appearance and essence mostly characterize the country side, while the urban environment is less damaged. The socio-political parties involved have to organize their plan of action, their mutual commitment, their objective-based strategies, having the moral and professional obligation to create an honest image on the education. In the context of the ongoing crisis regarding Romania’s education system, the first step for a fair evaluation is the identification of the people responsible and their motivations that have generated invisible issues, followed by the analysis and implementation of reality adapted solutions.

 

KEYWORDS: statistics education, invisible dropout, school failure, educational strategies.

DISCURSUL IDENTITAR ȘI PROCESUL DE DEMOCRATIZARE ÎN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA

Veronica ONEA, PhD. Candidate

Doctoral School in International Relations and Security Studies, "Babeș-Bolyai” University

ABSTRACT: This study presents a brief perspective over democratization and identity rethoric. The process of democratization in the Republic of Moldova is, ultimetly, a result of identity question. Both are connected to the issues regarding the formation of domestic and foreign policies agenda which are responsible for the geopolitical preferences of the country. The central point of the identity question remains the spoken language because it is a vehicle of national identity and, moreover, an instrument of political power. Ethnical diversity, economical fragility and political instability create an excellent advantage for different political groups which hold power over the main state’s institution.

 

KEYWORDS:  democratization, identity discourses,  ethnicity, nationalism.

EVREUL ÎN LEGISLAȚIA BIZANTINĂ. SECOLELE IV-VI

Iustina BARBU, MA Student

Faculty of History, University of Bucharest

ABSTRACT: During the IV to VI centuries, the Byzantine Empire experiences a period of transition, in which the theological discourse becomes a significant part of the imperial authority’s policies. Christianity was now more than just a religion, as the new founded Empire was based and could only exist in its parameters. In this context, the attitude towards the religious minorities and mainly the Jewish community was ambiguous, as they were protected by law but at the same time rejected by the masses, having therefore a special status among the other minorities in the Empire.

 

KEYWORDS: Jew, Byzantine Empire, legislation, Christian.

FRANCISCO DE VITORIA ȘI DE INDIS: RECUPERAREA UNUI TEXT CAPITAL ÎN TRADIȚIA DREPTULUI NATURAL ȘI INTERNAȚIONAL, ÎN CONTEXTUL INTELECTUAL ȘI POLITIC AL SECOLULUI AL XVI-LEA

Răzvan-Albert MARCU, PhD. Candidate

Faculty of Philosophy, University of Bucharest 

ABSTRACT: The main aim of this article consists in the presentation (for the first time in Romanian academic literature) of one of the founding texts in the history of human rights and international law. Begining by drawing an outiline of its author´s intelectual background and biographical route, I intend to place Francisco de Vitoria´s De Indis within the particularities of the context wherefrom  it emerges, while highlighting the existing tension it maintains with the specific features of the intellectual and political milieu of Europe´s first half of the sixteenth century. I maintain that Vitoria´s argument must be aprehended within the theological and political controversies that paved the way for European modernity.

 

KEYWORDS: Francisco de Vitoria, De Indis, natural law, dominium, colonialism.

CONSTRUCȚIA BRANDULUI DE ȚARĂ: PERCEPȚIA PUBLICULUI INTERN

Roxana-Elena POPA, PhD. Candidate

Faculty of Journalism and Communication Science, University of Bucharest

ABSTRACT: In a country branding program, directing the message to the internal audience is often ignored. Same happens with the fact that the perception of this category regarding the promoted identity, regarding the message of the campaign or the image about their own country may have a major impact on the external public`s perceptions. The study is part of the research carried out for the PhD. thesis and brings into question the role of the domestic audience in promoting the country`s image as well as in shaping the brand, and the need to focus on the internal public`s perception and the factors which affect it.

 

KEYWORDS: country`s image, country branding, internal audience, mass-media.

REPREZENTĂRI ALE VINULUI ÎN 1001 DE NOPȚI

Oana-Alexandra CHIRILĂ, MA Student

Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Bucharest

ABSTRACT: This paper’s main goal is to understand to what measure the world of the Arabian Nights is a carefree and promiscous one by concentrating on the motive of wine in narrative techniques, not forgetting to also take the historical context in consideration. Although the collection is not completely Arabic in its nature and alcohol is strictly forbidden in Islam, these do not make the Arabian Nights any less Arabic or Islamic, on the contrary, they give us a broad understanding of the relation between the person that practices it and the religion.

 

KEYWORDS: Arabian Nights, Wine, Abbasid, Poetry, Islam.

SEMIOTICA HRISOSTOMIANĂ DESPRE γυναίκα ( הָ֣אִשָּׁ֔ה – haișah ) BIBLICĂ

Ana-Maria BODAI, PhD. Candidate

“Dumitru Stăniloae” Faculty of Orthodox Theology, "Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Iași

ABSTRACT: This study aims to bring to the public’s attention the demanding aspects of Saint John Chrysostom’s point of view regarding woman (γυναίκα orהָ֣אִשָּׁ֔ה ).  The entire paper will consider a wide range of theological angles approached according to the Holy Father’s opinion (I will take into account the period of time in which he activated as a theolog of the IV century A.C.) Seen as a conservative figure, Saint John Chrysostom is strongly influenced by the conditions of those times, a culture that wouldn’t encourage women’s access to the public life and would consider agreeable only the ones who minded family matters. Saint John Chrysostom proved to be a good interpreter of the human soul, a Christian anthropologist, practical and clear-eyed who described the embodiment of man’s morally-spiritual feature in his works. His main preoccupation was to change wrong ideas and to draw people to love a virtuous life according to Christian norms. Inspired by Saint Paul, the Holy Father eulogized the Christian family by use of  contructive and positive terms, pointing at its most hidden aspects. In order to highlight those mentioned above, we will subject to a detailed analysis the following aspects of great interest observed in Saint John Chrysostom’s works by use of the diacritical patristic method. The first theological aspect of Saint John Chrysostom’s thinking considers Γυναίκα (הָ֣אִשָּׁ֔ה – haișah) found under negative assertions. Where do the negative assertions on women come from according to Saint John Chrysostom? What does the illustruous writer actually want to express? How can the sudden change from a hostile attitude towards women to a friendly one be explained? In his writings, one observes the emphatic and deep criticism that the Holy Father uses to blame Eve more than Adam in regards to the originary sin, based on the idea that from the early times woman was given a harsher punishment since she sined more. The second theological aspect concerns the isotimy between man and woman having as a starting point the biblical text in which it is mentioned that Γυναίκα (הָ֣אִשָּׁ֔ה) was created εἰκόνα θεοῦ( בְּצֶ֥לֶם אֱלֹהִ֖ים) becoming, as a result, equal to ἀνήρ ( הָאִ֣ישׁ). How does the Holy Father see this controversial issue of equality between man and woman? Does Saint John Chrysostom cover only the equality in the family frame and leaves the equality among the two sexes in the social frame unclear? Saint John Chrysostom supports equality between man and woman on the basis that before he created woman, God makes her part of world leadership alongside man and offers her blessing as well (The Book of Genesis 1, 26-27, 29; 2, 7-18; 18, 21-24). The third theological aspect concerns woman as presented in the Christian Old Testament. What is Saint John Chrysostom’s overall view on the social condition that marks the woman’s destiny in the Old Testament? Woman’s condition in the Old Testament was described as one of enslavement, discouragement. The book of separation and poligamy were accepted so that she may not suffer from her husband’s opression. According to the biblical passage 24, 1-3 from the Book of Deuteronomy, the husband had the right to divorce in the vaguest circumstances.

 

KEYWORDS: negative assertion, haișah, semiotics, feminine figures.

UMANIZAREA SFINȚILOR SAU DIVINIZAREA OAMENILOR?

Silvia-Diana ŠOLKOTOVIĆ, PhD. Candidate

Faculty of Letters, University of Craiova

ABSTRACT: In Eastern Serbia, in an area of ​​hundreds of square kilometers live a few hundred thousand speakers of Romanian language dialects. The absence of native priests since 1833 when the region was annexed to the Kingdom of Serbia, on one side, and the church service in Old Slavonic, on the other side, have alienated the population speaking of Romanian dialects from Christianity. So, that population is recognized by the priority it gives even nowadays, to indigenous pre-Christian rituals, the saints being brought to human condition through the folk songs and ballads. Afterlife is presented as a continuation of the common one and not as an exclusive drastic change (Heaven or Hell).  Rituals are combined and grounded in everyday life.

 

KEYWORDS: Vlach- Romanian, saints, alms, God, Timok.

ASPECTE CARNAVALEȘTI ÎN LITERATURA ROMÂNĂ: TEATRU ȘI ROMAN

Corina VOICU, PhD. Candidate

Faculty of Letters, University of Bucharest

ABSTRACT: Carnival as a literary theme entered Romanian literature via French culture, and it was dealt with directly for the first time in 1845 by a romantic writer: Vasile Alecsandri,  in the play "Iașii în carnaval". ("Iași City in the Time of Carnival"). The playwright I. L. Caragiale continues exploring masterly the same theme half a century after in the play, D-ale carnavalului" ("Carnival Issues"). This time the focus is on the masquerade, a little private celebration, which takes place in the confinement of a specific space, not unleashing free in the streets.  In the modern and postmodern Romanian novel, carnival, as subject itself, rarely occurs. Besides Eugen Barbu and Ion Coja, who deal directly with this subject in the novels "Săptămâna nebunilor", ("The Week of Fools") and "Carnaval la Constanța" ("Carnival in Constanța"), carnivalesque elements are found only at certain times in the narrative discourse. Alexandru Musina's novel, "Nepotul lui Dracula" ("Dracula's Grandson") is worth mentioning here because of the abundance of these elements. The theoretical concepts used in the analysis of the literary works mentioned above are based on the work of M. Bakhtin - Rabelais and His World,  from which I mainly used the notion of "carnivalesque" (as being everything that relates to the festive life of the people, the "merry time"), the idea of ​​the democratic nature of carnival, its regenerative function, the aesthetic concept of grotesque realism (which has at its center the grotesque body), and some other themes (violence, feast, carnival mask or laughter). Another reference work that helped me create this essay is Goya. The Last Carnival by Victor Ieronim Stoichiţă and Anna Maria Coderch. This work highlights the main features of carnival (libertinism, excess, disguise and joy), and distinguishes between the therapeutic violence of carnival and the pathological one, theorizing the connection between carnival and revolution.

 

KEYWORDS: carnival, carnivalesque, literature, novel, drama.

MULTICULTURALITATE LA FEMININ ÎN LITERATURA FEMININĂ CONTEMPORANĂ – SECOLUL AL XX-LEA

Mădălina Camelia INGRAM (ȚINTEIA), PhD. Candidate

"Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University &

Université Paris Este Créteil, University of Alberta

ABSTRACT: The 20th century is the century of challenges, of cultural exchanges. Speaking about women's writing, Abla Farhoud and Ying Chen are showing a world (inner world) that sometimes is not easily understood. These two Canadian writers have a very important characteristic - the language (French) that they use to write in and their cultural model that they internalize in the moment of becoming "Canadians". Moving forward in their own Canadian life, they leave behind their original-cultural life, their characters are often found in situations of not being understood and loneliness, in difficult realities of their lives, trying to adapt themselves to a new cultural model - in the new life that they find. The French language, in their case, can connect people but can be also the biggest linguistic limit. The multicultural factor in Canada reveals a different situation. The "French side" of Canada is the place where people speak French and the "English side" of Canada is a place where people mostly uses the English language. The differences between their mentalities are very difficult to understand because of the origin the writers are coming from: Abla Farhoud is coming from Liban and Ying Chen from China. Every country offers us a new model of society, and also different typologies of cultural aspects and of people.

 

KEYWORDS: multiculturalism, original cultural life, English language, women writers, differences.

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Issue No. 5/ Vol. II